There are more than 100 known fish diseases. Most of which do not seem to discriminate between fish species while some others are host-specific. Bacteria, which is one of the common cause of most fish diseases, can be prevented from infecting fish when proper fish management is been practiced. Bacteria infected fish can be treated.
The three (3) methods that are always used in administering drug(s) to fish are:
- Medicated feed:
- Drug(s) water solution: mixture of recommended quantity of drugs to water, this is based on the drug produce recommendation or fish consultant or fish physician recommendation.
- Injecting the fish: the sick/infected fish is injected usually intra-muscularly with a vaccine. Quantity of vaccine to be given to the fish is based on the weight of the fish. This method is usually carried-out by fish expert/consultant and researcher(s).
When administering drug(s) to fish, the following will determine the method of administering the drugs:
- Type of holding facility you used for culturing e.g. cage, earthen pond, concrete tank/mobile tank etc.
- The culture system you practice e.g. Continues-flow-through, Non- continues-flow-through, Recirculation system, permanent stagnate water.
- Cage + Continues flow through = Medicated feed
- Cage + None continue flow through + large water body = Medicated feed
- Cage + permanent stagnate water + large water body (lagoon) = Medicated feed
- Earthen pond + Continues flow through = Medicated feed
- Earthen pond + non continues flow through = Medicated feed
- Earthen pond + permanent stagnate water = Medicated feed
- Concrete tank/mobile tank + Continues flow through = Medicated feed
- Concrete tank /mobile tank + non continues flow through = Medicated feed/ Drug(s) water solution
- Concrete tank /mobile tank+ permanent stagnate water = Medicated feed/ Drug(s) water solution.
- Recirculation system= Medicated feed
Changing Concrete tank /mobile tank water during fish medication is very important when administering drug through drug water solution method because of so many micro- activities that will be going on inside the pond by other occupant in the pond(micro-organism) , chemical reaction(ion reaction) between the element in the drugs and that of the one present in the pond water due to this the dissolve oxygen is been share with the fish by is neighbor, low dissolve oxygen comes-in , the consequence of low dissolve oxygen in water is death if urgent measure is not taken to correct that.
When administering drug(s) to fish in a Concrete tank /mobile tank through DRUG WATER SOLUTION METHOD, I advise you manage your water quality by reducing the water level by 50% and top it again slowly (low water pressure through the water in-let) by 50% twice/day throughout the period of medication, I recommend morning and evening.
When administering drug(s) to fish in a Concrete tank /mobile tank through MEDICATED FEED METHOD, I advise you manage your water quality by reducing the water level by 50% top it again slowly (low water pressure from the water in-let) by 50%, once/day throughout the period of medication.
With this, inducing of stress is at the lowest minimum.
PREVENTION OF BACTERIA CAUSE DISEASE IN FISH FARMING
The key to fish bacteria prevention is through proper fish stress management. Stress in fish can be cause by changes in water temperature and water quality, rough handling, overcrowding/over-stocking, nutritional deficiency, unexpected sound & or sudden flash light can often trigger an escape response from the fish, for this reason most intensive culture system like the recirculating system have minimal lighting around the fish tank(s)
Nicholas Izekor is an Aquaculture Trainer at The Ark Shore Konsults (T.A.S.K.). He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Fisheries Management from the University of Benin, Nigeria.